Vitamin B12: is a water-soluble vitamin bound to protein in food, that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement and a prescription medication. Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.
Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements – National Institutes of Health. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/. Accessed June 12, 2013.
Omnivore: An animal whose normal diet includes both plants and animals. Human beings and bears, for instance, are omnivores.
omnivore. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/omnivore. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians: eat milk products-such as milk, cheese, and yogurt-and eggs, but no meat, poultry, seafood, or fish. “Lacto” means “milk.” “Ovo” means eggs.
Ovo-vegetarian: eat eggs and egg products, but no meat, poultry, seafood, or fish.
Lacto-vegetarians: eat milk products, but not eggs, meat, poultry, seafood, or fish.
Vegetarian Diets – What is a vegetarian?. WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/tc/vegetarian-diets-what-is-a-vegetarian. Accessed June 12, 2013.
Veganism: is a type of “total” vegetarian diet that excludes meat, eggs, dairy products and all other animal-derived ingredients. Many vegans also do not eat foods that are processed using animal products, such as refined white sugar and some wines. Most vegans also avoid the use of all products tested on animals, as well as animal-derived non-food products, such as leather, fur and wool.
Hackett J. Vegan – What is a vegan? What do vegans eat?. About.com http://vegetarian.about.com/od/glossary/g/Vegan.htm. Accessed June 12, 2013.
Raw Foodism: (or rawism) is a diet consisting of uncooked, unprocessed, and often organic foods or wild foods.
Depending on the type of lifestyle and results desired, raw food diets may include a selection of raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds (including sprouted whole grains such as gaba rice), eggs, fish (such as sashimi), meat (such as carpaccio), and non-pasteurized/non-homogenized dairy products (such as raw milk, raw milk cheese, and raw milk yogurt).
Wong C. Raw Food Diet. About.com. http://altmedicine.about.com/od/popularhealthdiets/a/Raw_Food.htm. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Raw Veganism: is a diet that combines the concepts of veganism and raw foodism. It excludes all food and products of animal origin, as well as food cooked at a temperature above 48 °C (118 °F).
Raw Vegan. Wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raw_veganism. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Paleolithic Diet: consists of lean meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots and nuts, while cereals, dairy products, salt and processed fat and sugar are avoided. The underlying rationale is that foods that were available during the evolution of primates, up to the emergence of fully modern humans, are healthier than recently introduced ones (dairy products, cereals, beans, refined fat, sugar, etc.), since our digestive and metabolic systems were not designed for the latter group of foods.
Lindeberg S. Palaeolithic diet (“stone age” diet). Food & Nutrition Research, North America, 49, jun. 2005. http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/1526. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Protein: Every cell in the human body contains protein. It is a major part of the skin, muscles, organs, and glands. Protein is also found in all body fluids, except bile and urine. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development during childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy. You do not need to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet.
Protein in diet. MedlinePlus. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002467.htm. May 5, 2011 Accessed June 26, 2013.
Iron: Iron is a mineral the our body needs to make the proteins hemoglobin (for red blood cells) and myoglobin (for muscle tissue). It helps those proteins carry and store oxygen. A deficiency in iron is called anemia. Too much iron can cause iron poisoning.
Iron. MedlinePlus. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/iron.html. June 24, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2013.
Carnivore: an animal belonging to the order Carnivora, classified as a flesh eater, with appropriate teeth and a characteristically simple stomach and a short intestine for such a diet. Examples are cats, dogs, and bears.
carnivore. Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/carnivore. 2009. Accessed June 26, 2013.